Cytokinins, synthesized from adenosine monophosphate and mevalonic acid; are found in root tips and developing seeds and are transported within the plant via the xylem. Binding proteins have been identified in ribosomes, the cytosol and the nucleus. Cytokinins are potent growth factors necessary for cell growth and differentiation. They inhibit the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids, thereby causing inhibition of senescence. They have the capacity to direct the flow of amino acids and other chemicals through th plant and increase the rate of amino acid uptake. Cytokinins act at the stage of messenger RNA synthesis, activating genes that have previously been shut down, or by preventing genes to be shut off. Cytokinins have the following effects: cell division, induce bud formation, cell enlargement and leaf expansion, enhance stomata opening, shoot initiation, reduce apical dominance, delay leaf senescence, and promote chloroplast development.
Abscisic acid is synthesized from metabolic acid and is found in seeds, roots and leaves. It is transported in the plant via both xylem and phloem . A binding protein has been identified in the cell membrane. Abscisic acid has an inhibitory effect on cell elongation, but promotes leaf abscission and dormancy. Abscisic acid has the following effects: stomata closure, promotes protein synthesis, inhibits germination, and promotes dormacy.
Ethylene is a gas synthesized from methionine. It is found in many plant tissues and is transported by diffusion within the plant. Ethylene stimulates swelling or isodiametric growth of stems and roots. A receptor for ethylene has been identified on the cell membrane.
Ethylene has the following effects: Release from dormancy, leaf abscission, flower opening, shoot and root growth, adventitious root formation, leaf senescence, and fruit ripening.
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